More solitary bees – and their unsavoury friends

cineraria nest in CP April 13
Andrena cineraria nests

 

On a sunny day just over a month ago, I was watching the solitary bees (Andrena flavipes) in a soil bank by the edge of one of the town centre car parks. It was a mid-April Sunday, the car park almost empty, so I wandered along the bank to check for any other bees living there. I had looked before and found nothing but this time I was surprised to find freshly disturbed friable soil and some bees about the same size as honeybees but with prominent black and white hairs. I took as many photos as their behaviour would allow and when I looked at various bee resources I reckoned these were most likely Andrena cineraria, the Ashy Mining Bee. The name refers to the colour of the hairs on the thorax of the bees and cineraria comes from the Latin for ashes.

Ashy Mining Bee 4
Andrena cineraria, can’t say if it’s male or female.

 

The Ashy Mining Bee is a very pretty solitary bee, particularly the female with her distinctive black and white hairs; the males are not so clearly marked although they do have white facial hairs. My photos  don’t allow me to identify males or females with any certainty although I did see two bees that were either fighting or mating.  I have not seen any females with pollen and I don’t think this is a large accumulation of nests but it does show that there are two species of solitary bee living in this unassuming soil bank in a town centre car park adjacent to the Leechwell Garden.

Ashy Mining Bee poss male
A. cineraria, probably male

 

Ashy Mining Bee 2
A.cineraria, probably male

 

Ashy Mining Bee Mating Pair
Fighting or mating?

 

While I was watching these bees, another large insect about the size of a medium bumblebee appeared and patrolled the nest area. With its smart coat of russet hairs and its long proboscis clearly visible, this was a bee fly, most likely Bombylius major.  These are parasites of A. cineraria and flick their eggs in to the soil nests where they develop and take over.

Bee fly
Bee fly

 

Later, I also noticed a smaller insect with a prominent yellow banded abdomen. In the photograph it is digging in the soil upside down. This is probably a nomad bee but, from this photo, I cannot say which species. A few days later I saw two Nomada flying about; these could be Nomada lathburiana known to parasitise nests of A. cineraria by laying eggs which develop and kill the bee egg or early larva.

seen near cineraria nest
Nomad bee digging near A.cineraria nest

 

Nomad bees
Two nomad bees flying near the A.cineraria nest region, possibly Nomada lathburiana.

 

Bees and neonicotinoids – another twist in the tale.

To the agrochemical companies and to many farmers they are essential tools ensuring efficient crop production. To environmentalists and to many bee scientists they are dangerous chemicals contributing to declining bee populations. I am talking, of course, about the neonicotinoid insecticides widely used in this country to control insect pests.

Last week two papers were published on-line in the journal Nature emphasising the dangers posed by these chemicals.

One paper, from a team at Newcastle University, investigated whether honeybees and bumblebees showed any preference (positive or negative) for food containing neonicotinoids; there had been suggestions that bees might avoid neonicotinoid-treated crops in the field. The new lab-based work showed that, when offered a choice, bees preferred to eat sucrose solution (nectar) containing neonicotinoids (imidacloprid or thiamethoxam) rather than control sucrose solution. If this occurs in the field then bees may forage preferentially on crops containing chemicals toxic to their health and inadvertently bring back these toxins to their nests.

The second paper, from scientists at Lund University in Sweden, showed that the neonicotinoid clothianidin, when used in the field, damaged wild bee (bumblebee and solitary bee) populations but was without effect on honeybees. I want to focus on this paper as it is the first controlled study of the effects of a neonicotinoid on honeybees, bumblebees and solitary bees under field conditions. Let’s start by looking at the background.

Three years is a long time in science

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Back in 2012, two studies were published showing that neonicotinoids, even when they didn’t kill bees, could affect bee behaviour in a way that impaired survival of honeybee and bumblebee colonies. The findings showed that these chemicals could contribute to a decline in the numbers of bees and other pollinators. These observations had a big effect on policy and indirectly contributed to the current partial ban on the use of three neonicotinoids in Europe.

One of the papers was from Dave Goulson’s lab, then at Stirling, and found that even at the low doses typically encountered on treated crops in the field, neonicotinoids substantially reduced the number of queens produced by bumblebee colonies, so impairing survival. In Goulson’s study, bumblebees were treated with neonicotinoids in the lab before being allowed to fly freely. This is called a semi-field design and some have suggested that the findings cannot be extrapolated to the real world. The levels of neonicotinoids have also been criticised although these were very carefully thought through.

There was considerable media interest in this work, nicely described in Goulson’s latest book (A Buzz in the Meadow) and the UK Food and Environment Agency (FERA) labs in York hastily set up a preliminary field trial to examine the problem. During the spring and summer of 2012 they studied three fields of oil seed rape, one treated with the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, another treated with the neonicotinoid, clothianidin and a third untreated field to act as a control. Bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nests were placed by each field and the occupants were left to fly freely and build their colonies. Extensive analyses were performed including colony growth, the pollen collected by the bees and pesticide residues detected in pollen and nectar.

Superficially this sounds like a rigorous study (free flying bees, compare neonicotinoid-treated with control, plenty of analyses and so on) and it should have given an indication of the effect of neonicotinoids under real-world field conditions. The success of the trial depended on the bees foraging on the crop near their nests so there should have been clothianidin-exposed colonies, imidacloprid-exposed colonies and neonicotinoid-free controls. Unfortunately the bees had other ideas; they largely ignored the flowering oil seed rape by their nests, foraging further away and returning with pollen from crops treated with another neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam. This completely negated the original design so that, in my view, no valid conclusions can be drawn from the study, despite official pronouncements.

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The new Swedish study

The FERA work was a valiant but flawed attempt to study the effects of neonicotinoids on bumblebees under field conditions and it was clear that a properly conceived field trial was required. The ambitious new study from Lund University mostly fills that void.

The Lund team selected 16 landscapes surrounding spring-sown oil seed rape fields in different parts of southern Sweden in 2013. The landscapes were divided in to 8 pairs on the basis of the nature of the surrounding countryside and for each pair one was sown with seed treated with the neonicotinoid, clothianidin and the other was sown without neonicotinoid, to act as a control. All seed also contained a fungicide. The neonicotinoid-treated seed also contained a pyrethroid to protect plant roots but there was no evidence that the bees came in to contact with this chemical.

Honeybee hives, bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies and solitary bee (Osmia bicornis) cocoons were placed by each field during the flowering season and their progress was followed. Additionally, the numbers of free flying wild bees (bumblebee and solitary bee) were assessed at each field during the flowering season. Pollen brought back by bees was analysed for flower type and for pesticide residues. The study was large enough to allow statistical analyses to be performed so that valid conclusions could be drawn although the design was unable to detect effects smaller than 20%.

Unlike the FERA study, bees did forage on the oil seed rape adjacent to their colony based on pollen analysis, although this was not an exclusive choice. Bees near treated fields brought back pollen and nectar containing clothianidin whereas those near untreated fields did not. The study design seemed to have been successful and the results were clear:

1. Honeybee hives behaved similarly by treated and untreated fields; there was no effect of the pesticide on colony strength. This is good news for honeybees and for beekeepers and agrees with a 2014 field study from Canada also using clothianidin.

2. Bumblebee colony growth and reproduction were reduced near treated fields. This agrees with earlier semi-field studies so that it is now difficult to avoid the conclusion that agricultural use of neonicotinoids has damaging effects on bumblebees.

3. Whereas solitary bees placed by untreated fields emerged from cocoons and built new nests, this did not occur for cocoons situated near treated fields, possibly because of navigational problems caused by insecticide exposure.

4. The number of free-flying wild bees was reduced by about 50% at the treated fields.

The implications of the new Swedish study

Honeybees were not affected by foraging from a neonicotinoid-treated crop whereas wild bees (bumblebees and solitary bees) suffered reductions in numbers and reproductive ability. Wild bees are, therefore, more sensitive to neonicotinoids than honeybees. This may be because, as James Cresswell at Exeter has shown, honeybees break down neonicotinoids more quickly than bumblebees so that honeybees experience lower doses.

The effect of the neonicotinoid on wild bees is an important result for several reasons. Wild bees are important pollinators, contributing more than half of the “pollination service” required for crops. Crop yield and quality will suffer if these insects are lost so we need to look after them and that may need to include rethinking use of pesticides.

The differential sensitivity of bee types to neonicotinoids shows that environmental risk assessment of new and existing insecticides, typically performed in short term lethal studies on honeybees, is inadequate to determine long term effects on different bee types in the field.

These new data will add to the pressure to extend the European moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoids as seed dressings after the initial two year period ends in December. There is, however, concern that if neonicotinoids are not available then farmers will use older insecticides that may be more dangerous for bees. Perhaps farmers should rethink their use of pesticides and return to a “treat when required” policy rather than using neonicotinoids prophylactically.

When the three neonicotinoids were temporarily banned in 2013, farmers claimed that the yields of crops would be drastically reduced. It is interesting that in the first season when crops were grown from untreated seed in the EU, the yields actually increased. Perhaps we should rethink the use of chemicals more generally in modern farming.

I know a bank where the wild bee goes

The young woman sitting in her car rolled the window down and enquired: “Would you mind telling me what you are doing?” I was in one of the town centre car parks adjacent to the Leechwell Garden and had been peering at a bank covered with scrappy grass and flowers, occasionally taking photographs. She continued hesitantly, asking if perhaps I was interested in the wild flowers. She was right, of course, but that was only part of the story.

The car park is called the Nursery, its incongruous name purloining a bit of local history. Difficult as it is to believe,  until the early 1980s this part of central Totnes housed several fine commercial market gardens.  All kinds of vegetables were produced in season and sold through shops in the town. The land that now forms the Nursery car park used to be covered with greenhouses growing tomatoes, lettuces and out of season chrysanthemums.

car park sign
The soil bank by the car park on a quiet day

I find it sad that these very productive market gardens were tarmacked over to provide car parking but that is what happened. Narrow banks of soil were left around the parking area, perhaps to leaven the bleakness. Some of these banks are now covered with brambles, others with grass. The bank I have been watching is about ten feet wide and south facing. It is mostly covered with grass although there are a few exposed areas of friable soil; at this time of year there is a good population of flowering dandelions and celandines. Behind the bank is a high wall clad in ivy and on sunny days, the area gets quite warm attracting many insects.

Solitary bee on daisy
One of the small bees feeding on a daisy

 

solitary bee March 26
Another of the small bees

 

Last year, my friend Susan Taylor told me about some solitary mining bees living in this bank. I had a look, but didn’t study them properly, mostly owing to my ignorance. This year I decided to try to identify the inhabitants and occasionally popped in to the car park to see if anything was happening. It wasn’t until the third week of March that I was rewarded with my first sighting of the solitary bees. On a warm, sunny day I found a cloud of small, slender bees, each about two thirds the size of a honeybee. They were flying about in an excited, staccato manner about twelve inches above the ground repeatedly changing direction, occasionally bumping in to one another, occasionally stopping to feed from dandelions. Susan Taylor describes this behaviour as their “Sun Dance” and they do seem to fly only when it is warm and sunny. From my photographs, I could see their black abdomen with prominent white stripes and their thorax and face decorated with pale brown hairs.

Solitary bee female April 6
One of the larger bees showing the orange-yellow hairs on its back legs

 

nest area
The nest area with tunnels built in friable soil

 

Solitary bee females April 6 2
Two of the larger bees crawling about

 

The “Sun Dance” continued on warm days and then about two weeks after I first saw the small bees I came across an area of friable soil in the bank with some prominent holes which I assume are the nests. Here I saw a few larger bees that were otherwise quite similar in appearance to the “Sun Dancers”. There was one clear difference apart from size and that was the orange-yellow hair on their upper back legs. They were also behaving quite differently, crawling around near the holes but rarely entering. I didn’t see any evidence of mating but a few days later I began to see some of these larger bees returning to the holes loaded with chrome-yellow pollen and quickly disappearing inside to equip their nests. On good days, the smaller bees were still evident but in gradually decreasing numbers. The larger bees have continued to collect pollen; the dandelions are declining but many local fruit trees are now blossom-covered so there is no shortage.

solitary bee female with pollen April 12
One of the larger bees with pollen

 

So, what have I been seeing? I have compared photographs of my car park-bees with pictures in bee books and with the many photographs of solitary bees on the internet. It is very difficult to make a firm identification, but I will offer a suggestion. The smaller bees are likely to be males and the larger bees the females of the same species. What we have called the “Sun Dance” is a crowd of males waiting for the females and getting over-excited, rather like sulky adolescent boys. I did not witness mating but collection of pollen and nest building are performed only by mated females. Their early emergence, their nest location, the complete white bands and the orange-yellow leg-hairs on females but not males suggest Andrena flavipes, the Yellow-legged Mining Bee. These are common mining bees that build nests in tunnels in soil banks. They are found in the southern UK and may have a second brood in mid-summer; I shall have to keep watch.

It would be interesting to hear what others think about this tentative identification.

………………………………………..

But why am I interested in these bees if they are not rare? Why am I taking the trouble to watch them and take photographs?

I believe it is important to document these creatures, to get to know their life cycles and spread the word. Their emergence and nest-building each spring is one of nature’s amazing phenomena and I feel privileged to watch. These bees are also important pollinators; it’s good to know they are around and we should aim to support them.

I find it fascinating that these small lives are being lived in a busy town centre car park, literally under our noses. Perhaps realising that there is life in the soil banks makes up in part for the loss of the market gardens?

I explained some of this to the young woman in the car and she seemed interested, if a little bemused. It’s not every day you stop in a car park and get an enthusiastic lecture on solitary bees!

A free mid-life health check: what happens? is it useful? does it hurt?!

The National Health Service in England is currently introducing a programme to screen all 40-74 year olds for a range of common conditions.  This is a bold plan but not without its critics.  I recently went through the NHS Health Check, as the scheme is called, and I wrote an article for the Marshwood Vale Magazine on my experience:

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First the bad news: we are all at risk of developing heart disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease and our risk increases as we grow older. Our risk also increases if we smoke, drink too much alcohol, have a poor diet, are overweight or don’t do enough physical activity. The good news is that we can all do something to reduce our risk by making changes to our lifestyle. The NHS Health Check has been introduced to help people make those changes. The NHS Health Check assesses a person’s risk of suffering from these conditions and provides lifestyle advice to reduce risk; it has been called a “mid-life MOT” and will be offered to 40-74 year olds every five years. I recently received an invitation to have the Check; it sounded like a good opportunity, so I decided to go.

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My NHS Health Check

On a bright, sunny morning in early March I strolled down to my local health centre where one of the practice nurses carried out the Health Check. It took about 20 minutes, it was very supportive and not the least bit judgmental. She began by asking about my family history: was there anyone in my family with heart disease, stroke or diabetes? If the answer was yes, this could raise my own risk. My age, gender and ethnicity were also noted; type 2 diabetes is more prevalent in older people and in some ethnic groups.

We talked about my lifestyle: did I smoke, how much alcohol did I drink, what sort of diet did I eat, did I take exercise? Smoking is known to cause cancer and respiratory disease and is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. High consumption of alcohol can cause liver disease, cancer and raised blood pressure. Diet is an important factor in overall health and regular exercise can be beneficial for several diseases.

She took some simple measurements: my weight and my height and from these she calculated my Body Mass Index (BMI). The BMI is a useful indicator of whether someone is carrying excess fat, whether they are “overweight” or “obese”, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. Excess fat carried around the midriff is the most dangerous so she also measured the circumference of my waist.

She determined two important indicators of heart health: my blood pressure and pulse; high blood pressure can predispose to heart disease, stroke or kidney problems. I had also been asked to bring a urine sample and she tested that for protein (an indicator of kidney disease) and glucose (a crude indicator of diabetes).

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By now, she had a rough idea of my risk of suffering from heart disease, stroke, diabetes and kidney disease and was able to advise me on changes in lifestyle. To complete the Check, she took samples of blood for analysis of glucose (raised levels might indicate diabetes) and two forms of cholesterol (risk indicators for heart disease and stroke). She told me that these results would take a few days to come and I would be contacted if there were any problems. And that was it, I was free to go.

Debate about the NHS Health Check

Health screening sounds like a good idea but at a time of diminishing resources there will always be debate about these sorts of schemes. The NHS Health Check has been criticised on a number of grounds. Some think it may generate undue worry and lead to unnecessary medication of patients. Some believe it only accesses the “worried well” and a better approach would be to target high risk groups.

In contrast, Diabetes UK has come out strongly in favour of the Check as an important and integral part of Type 2 diabetes prevention. If fully implemented, they say, it could prevent 4000 people a year from developing diabetes. The Check can also identify those who are unaware they have diabetes and enable them to access treatment to reduce life threatening complications. The potential savings to the NHS budget are obvious.

Diabetes UK is, however, concerned about the poor and patchy implementation of the scheme which, they say, should have a higher priority. There are huge disparities in the number of people having the Check in different areas and only a handful of local authorities meet their yearly target of delivering the Health Check to 20% of the eligible population; some, including Dorset and Devon, fall far short. Of particular concern is the take-up rate which fails to reach even 50% of those invited, so that many potentially unwell people are being missed. Patients also need to act on any lifestyle advice they are given and this will require vigorous follow up.

How was it for me?

The Health Check was, for me, a positive experience and I valued having some of my basic systems tested. There was a chance that I might be given bad news but I felt it would be better to know if I am at risk for certain diseases so that I could do something about it. For example, if my blood pressure is elevated, this might increase my risk of heart attack, stroke or kidney disease. If my blood glucose levels are elevated this could mean that I am in the early stages of type 2 diabetes. In either case I would be unaware of the problem but once I knew, I could make simple changes to my lifestyle including taking more exercise, losing weight and changing my diet.

To get a free NHS Health Check, either wait for the letter of invitation or contact your Family Doctor.

The pictures are from the information leaflet I was given and from the NHS Choices web site

Loitering by Lungwort, peering at Pulmonaria

Common lungwort
Common lungwort in a neighbour’s garden

 

I’ve recently been watching several patches of lungwort (Pulmonaria) in different parts of the town. It’s one of my favourite spring flowers bringing much needed early splashes of colour as well as food for the few bees out and about. I’ve found some of the common form with its pink and blue flowers and dappled green leaves. The Leechwell Garden also has three other cultivars, one with deep blue flowers, another with smaller white flowers and a large patch with coral pink flowers, some tinged with blue.

Blue lungwort
Blue lungwort in the Leechwell Garden, note the unspotted leaves and the pinker immature flowers.

 

White lungwort in Leechwell Garden
White lungwort in the Leechwell Garden.

 

Pink lungwort in Leechwell Garden
Pink lungwort in the Leechwell Garden.

 

The common form of lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis) grows wild over much of mainland Europe but it has been naturalised in Britain for many years. The oval, fleshy green leaves are decorated with silver grey spots and grow in a jumble near the ground. In early spring the plant launches volleys of brightly coloured trumpet-shaped flowers carried on sturdy stems. The immature flowers are a deep reddish pink fading to a paler pink as they grow and mature. The flower colour changes again as it ages, this time to a mauvish blue so a vigorous plant may carry two or three principal shades of flower.  On a large clump of the plant the flowers shimmer and dance in the cool breezes that predominate at this time of year, creating a haze of strong colour.

Common lungwort2
Common lungwort showing the colour variation.

 

There’s an interesting chemical story behind the flower colour change which may transport you back to school chemistry lessons and messing around with litmus paper. The flowers of common lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis) contain coloured pigments (anthocyanins) that are sensitive to acidity. As the flower ages, there is a change in the pH (a measure of acidity or alkalinity) and the pigments change colour accordingly. The young flowers are acid and their colour is red or pink. As they mature the acidity drops and the flowers eventually turn blue.

But this is more than a chemical curiosity, the colour change is a signal to pollinators. The pink colour tells pollinators that the flower has plenty of nectar whereas the blue says “don’t bother”. Hence pollinators don’t waste time visiting low-nectar blooms and they may visit several plants looking for high nectar flowers increasing the chance of cross pollination. This, of course, raises the question of what happens in cultivars where the flower colour does not change.

It is widely reported that early botanists saw a resemblance between spotty lungwort leaves and diseased, ulcerated lungs. That’s how the name, lungwort and its Latin equivalent, Pulmonaria are supposed to have arisen. I would like to know more about this resemblance because I have no idea what “diseased, ulcerated” lungs look like. I tried to find pictures but that didn’t help either. I wonder which lung disease these early botanists, who were also physicians, were thinking of?

The apparent resemblance between the spotty leaves and diseased lungs also led medieval physicians to use lungwort preparations to treat respiratory conditions. Indeed lungwort has a long tradition of medicinal use and “officinalis” refers to this. In his 17th century herbal, Culpeper asserts: “It is of great use in diseases of the lungs” and to this day, herbalists use extracts of the plant to treat coughs and bronchitis.

The connection between lungwort leaves and diseased lungs did not impress everyone and the plant has a host of other common names of different provenance. Some refer to the Virgin Mary or where she lived, hence the names Our Lady’s Milk Drops, Mary Spilt the Milk and Jerusalem Cowslip. Another name is Soldiers and Sailors which makes a link between the flower colours and the red and blue uniforms of the army and the navy.

Bumblebee on blue lungwort
A bumblebee on blue lungwort in the Leechwell garden.

 

But what about those pollinators that are being lured by the siren-colours of lungwort flowers? I’ve seen honey bees and I’ve seen one small bumblebee which I guess is a worker based on its size. But what I’ve been waiting for is Anthophora plumipes or the Hairy-footed Flower Bee and I saw my first one, a male, on March 17. These are fairly large furry bees, the males who emerge first being gingery and the females black. They love lungwort and most days now when I go to see the Leechwell Garden lungwort I am rewarded by the sight of a male with his pale face and characteristic restless, staccato flight pattern. These Anthophora move quickly from flower to flower often buzzing loudly as they go and making it very difficult to take photos. Sometimes they disappear when I arrive but they also sometimes come to have a look; they hover near me, move in a straight line to another spot, hover again and repeat this behaviour around me until satisfied.

Hairy footed flower bee on lungwort 2
A Hairy-footed Flower Bee feeding from pink lungwort in the Leechwell Garden, note the pale face.

 

Hairy footed flower bee on lungwort 5
Another Hairy-footed Flower Bee.

 

There must be plenty of these solitary bees about for me to see them so easily, unless of course it’s a few very busy bees. So far I have seen no females, but when I do, I will update this.

Hairy footed flower bee on lungwort 3
Yet another Hairy-footed Flower Bee.

 

Update:  I finally saw a black female on some primroses on April 12th.   Ironically it was in our back garden, although we are quite close the the Leechwell Garden.

Please don’t put your foot on our Bug House

crocus March 15

It’s nearly a year now since I began watching some solitary mason bees (probably Osmia bicornis) in the Leechwell Garden, the community garden in the heart of Totnes. I was entranced as I watched the mated females building their nests in the removable tubes and in the holes in the wooden block of the fine Bug House attached to one of the old walls. They taught me so much about the life of a solitary bee.

 

Bug House Oct 14
The Bug House in October 2014 showing the removable tubes above and the wooden block nests below.

The Leechwell Garden is a public space and the Bug House is meant to be educational so it is understood that there will be a certain level of attrition. Sometimes visitors disturb the removable tubes and a few have been knocked to the ground (the tubes that is!). Last summer about half of the filled tubes were taken which is a pity as the developing bees probably did not survive. Anyway, by the autumn of 2014 there were about 30 filled removable tubes still left and I began to wonder whether they would make it through the winter.

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The removable tubes with one of last year’s mason bees and a friend. A newly filled tube can also be seen with its fresh mud seal.

 

I thought long and hard about what to do and decided it would be better to store the tubes somewhere safer. They need to stay cool all winter so I put them in our shed which is not attached to the house. I carefully noted which was the front end of the tubes and stored them in a cardboard box with holes to allow air to circulate. I waited until October 15th last year to do this so that the bees had entered the pupal stage and would not be damaged by moving. The nests in the wooden block, of course, stayed with the Bug House in the Garden.

I can’t say I felt comfortable about doing this, it felt as though I was tampering with nature but I convinced myself it was for the best. The way things turned out, it was just as well I had put the tubes somewhere safe.

Around Christmas time, the Bug House was knocked off the wall, probably by someone using it as a step to scale the wall out of hours. It was put back, only to be knocked off again, this time early in February. With the help of Susan Taylor and of David Martin, who in fact did all the drilling and screwing, the Bug House was put up again but this time at a place I judged to be safer, higher up and away from potential scrambling routes in and out of the Garden. The Bug House has survived two falls showing it is quite tough, but I am concerned about the effect on the bees in the wooden blocks where several mud seals have been lost (see photos below); time will tell if the bees have survived.

Bug House Feb 15
Back on the wall again!

 

Tubes March 15
The removable tubes after the winter.

 

With the winter nearly over and warmer weather in prospect, it was time to put the removable tubes back in their rightful place. Although I don’t expect to see the bees hatch until April, all the advice is to get the tubes in place by early March so that they can acclimatise and warm up slowly with the weather. So, on March 6th I opened up the box and put most of the tubes back in the Bug House. I was careful to put them back in the correct orientation so that the males can make their way out first. I saved a small number to put in an experimental Bee Hotel that I’ll describe in another post.

Tubes March 15 2
The removable tubes back in the Bug House; the majority are filled, a few empty ones have been added.

 

Block Feb 15
The wooden block nests in February 2015 showing that several had lost their mud seals, probably as a result of the disturbance. Compare with the picture below from October 2014.

 

Block Oct 14
The wooden block nests in October 2014 showing the neat mud seals.

 

With the tubes safely back in the Bug House I began to look around for potential bee forage. At present there are a few flowers in the Leechwell Garden, a little rosemary, some crocuses and several clumps of pulmonaria and I have seen honeybees enjoying the rosemary on sunny days. Also in one of the adjacent car parks there are some grassy banks populated with dandelions and celandines. The dandelions are very popular with honeybees. Also one of our neighbours has a striking deep pink, ornamental plum (Prunus mume beni-chidori ) which is currently in flower and when the sun shines there is a gentle, sweet fragrance and the bees flock to it; I have seen honeybees and one bumblebee.

Honeybee on rosemary
Honeybee on rosemary

 

Honeybee on dandelion
Honeybee on dandelion

 

It still feels quite early in the year and the weather seems stuck in a cool phase, but there is some forage about and on a sunny day the bees know how to find it. By the time the Osmia hatch out, which should be mid April, there will be plenty more forage about to keep all the bees happy.

Honeybee on prunus 1
Honeybee on prunus

We need to act now to protect the world from damaging climate change

It is clear: to restrict global warming to 2 degrees Centigrade we need to leave most of the remaining fossil fuel reserves in the ground. We must stop using oil, coal and gas and, instead, we must use renewable, zero-carbon energy sources.

And yet, politicians sit on their hands and do very little to encourage both reduced use of fossil fuels and increased use of renewables.

The Guardian Newspaper has decided to increase their coverage of these issues, giving them a much higher priority and starting with a series of articles on its front page. With the Guardian’s global on-line reach this is a step change in both thinking and action on this topic.

The articles are an excellent resource for understanding the current situation and begin with a statement from their chief editor, Alan Rusbridger: Climate change: why the Guardian is putting threat to Earth front and centre

This is followed by:

Two extracts from Naomi Klein’s book “This changes everything”

“Climate fight won’t wait for Paris, vive la resistance” by climate activist Bill McKibben

“Keep it in the ground” by George Monbiot

I urge you to read some or all of these articles.

 

Here is a link to an article by another blogger that also covers the Guardian’s climate change series.

The image at the head of this article is of a tornado and comes from Wikipedia.

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