Tag Archives: opium

A cough medicine that really worked, and it contained opium – the story of Fudge’s Firewater

Runny nose, sore throat, hacking cough? Do you run to the pharmacy for a cough medicine that may or may not help? Until 2006, in the market town of Bridport in the south west of the UK, the locals had the luxury of a cough medicine that really seemed to work. The medicine was Fudge’s Mentholated Honey Syrup, or as the locals christened it, Fudge’s Firewater. Here is the story of this potent potion, how it came about and why it is no longer available.

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Mr Fudge’s Pharmacy in the late 1950s when the road was flooded. Mr Fudge is seen standing in the shop doorway with Donald Balson from the next door butchers shop in front. Photo kindly supplied by Richard Balson.

The story begins in the 1950s when Ken Fudge moved from London to Bridport to open his pharmacy in West Allington, next door to Balsons, Britain’s oldest family butchers (est. 1515). For Mr Fudge, trained in London but born in Blandford, this was something of a return to his roots. At that time, many pharmacists devised their own remedies, often to secret recipes, and Mr Fudge was no exception. He made several nostrums, as these remedies produced and sold in a single pharmacy are called, but the most popular and enduring was his Mentholated Honey Syrup (known locally as Fudge’s Firewater). When Mr Fudge retired in 1973, the recipe transferred to the East Street Pharmacy where it was sold until 2006, for much of that time under the supervision of Mr Kevin Morrish. Even now, the mere mention of the Fudge’s name evokes a warm wave of nostalgia and longing in many Bridport people.

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One of Mr Fudge’s bottles (probably about 50 years old). Photo kindly supplied by Jamie Dibdin

The medicine
Fudge’s Firewater was an old-style cough medicine recommended for common winter ailments: coughs, colds, influenza, loss of voice, hoarseness, sore throat and catarrh. The dose was one teaspoon every four hours and the label warned ominously that each spoonful should be “taken very slowly”. It was sold “over the counter” without prescription but strictly under the control of the pharmacist. Fudge’s Firewater was immensely popular and many people have told me how much they trusted it to help their symptoms: “Brilliant cough mixture, couldn’t beat it”, “Amazing medicine for coughs and sore throats”, “Never bought anything else”, “Please, if there is a god, bring back Fudge’s Firewater”. People travelled long distances to purchase the medicine, holiday makers often went home with supplies and, during some winters, as many as 250 bottles of Firewater were sold each week at the East Street Pharmacy.

The medicine also had a formidable reputation: “It nearly blew your head off but by golly it did the trick”, “Tasted like red diesel mixed with the finest brandy, lovely”, “The menthol really took your breath away” “It was a trial to take but you knew it would make you better” and several people spoke of “the Fudge’s shudder”.

As Mr Fudge himself said: “Some do swear by it, some do swear at it”.

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A bottle of Fudge’s Mentholated Honey Syrup (Fudge’s Firewater). Photo kindly supplied Emily Hicks, Bridport Museum

Unconventional uses of Fudge’s Firewater
The medicine was also a voice-saver for some professional singers and I heard about one well-known entertainer who would regularly send a friend to buy Firewater from Mr Morrish to help lubricate her vocal cords. Similarly, Marco Rossi told me that, in the 1990s, when he was part of local band, Stocky Lamaar, performing in smoke-filled pubs around Dorset, he and Al, the other vocalist, each had a bottle of the potion by them on stage. With the occasional swig of Firewater, they could sing all evening without sounding like “Madge from Neighbours at a Bonnie Tyler tribute karaoke night”.

What was Fudge’s Firewater and how did it work?
Mr Fudge’s medicine was a dark brown syrupy liquid made by mixing menthol crystals and a little fudgy flavouring into Gee’s Linctus, itself an old-fashioned cough remedy dating from the Victorian era. Gee’s linctus, or to give it its proper name, squill linctus opiate, contains several potentially active ingredients.

First, there is tincture of opium, an alcoholic extract of opium (the resin derived from the seed capsules of opium poppies). The main active ingredient in opium is morphine, a substance with an established effect on cough, but also a well-known drug of abuse, and the linctus contains morphine at low levels. Squill, a plant extract, is another potentially active component in the linctus that, paradoxically, encourages coughing and mucus removal. The medicine also contains alcohol at similar levels to a fortified wine and this may have contributed to the Firewater experience. Mr Fudge’s masterstroke was to boost the effects of the Gee’s linctus by adding menthol, a remedy used for many years to help with symptoms of coughs and colds; menthol may also act as an oral anaesthetic helping with sore throats and may relieve nasal congestion.

Illustration Papaver somniferum0.jpg
The opium poppy

(from Wikipedia, for details see Link)

Although cough medicines cannot alter the course of viral infections, they may help you feel better and Mr Fudge’s medicine attacked symptoms in several ways which is perhaps why it was so popular and so successful. It was the menthol, however, that made the potion so memorable, justifying the Firewater nickname and establishing a shared experience among those who used it, believed in it and benefitted from it.

Abuse of Fudge’s Firewater
Non-prescription medicines such as Gee’s linctus, and Fudge’s Firewater, have been abused by people trying to access even the small amounts of morphine they contain. Gee’s linctus is, for example, reported to induce a “lovely euphoria and dreaminess”, but only if you are prepared to drink 50ml or more of the medicine! Local pharmacists were aware of the problem and tried to control it: Mr Morrish monitored all sales personally and Mr Conroy (manager in the early 21st century) restricted sales to one bottle per person, with a signature.

The end of Fudge’s Firewater
Gee’s linctus gradually fell out of favour as a cough medicine because of the problem of abuse. Finding commercial sources of the linctus became more difficult and temporary interruptions to the availability of Fudge’s Firewater occurred early in the 21st century. Then, in January 2006, a notice appeared on the window of Bridport’s East Street Pharmacy (then owned by Moss/Alliance) announcing that the medicine would be discontinued owing to “problems with the supply of ingredients”. That was the official line but I suspect this was not the full story. Around this time there had also been a change in the pharmacy regulations. Nostrums containing even small amounts of morphine, like Fudge’s Firewater, now required a prescription and this change must have contributed to Moss’s decision.

That wasn’t quite the end, though, because a modified Firewater was available for a few years from the St John’s Pharmacy in Weymouth, about 20 miles south east of Bridport. A Weymouth pharmacist, Mr Dipan Shah, produced and sold a version of the potion but because of the change in pharmacy regulations, people needed to persuade their doctor to issue a private prescription if they wanted the medicine. The need for a prescription severely affected sales and by 2009 production finally ceased. The change in regulations also means that Fudge’s Firewater is very unlikely ever to reappear.

Fudge’s Firewater served Bridport well for 50 years. The medicine is now just a memory but one that should be preserved as an important part of Bridport’s history.

I should like to thank Angela Alexander, Stuart Anderson, Richard Balson, David Conroy, Richard Cooper, Margery Hookings, Diana Leake, Kevin Morrish, Caroline Morrish-Banham, Dipan Shah, Elizabeth Williamson, Joy Wingfield, The Bridport Museum and the many commenters on social media who generously helped me in preparing this article.

This article appeared in a slightly modified form in the March edition of the Marshwood Vale Magazine.

The picture at the top of this post shows Mr David Conroy, manager of the East Street Pharmacy in Bridport in the early 21st century (from the Bridport News).

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For a matter of record, I have set down the timeline of Mr Fudge’s Medicine below

The Fudge’s Firewater Timeline

1950s Mr Ken Fudge opens his pharmacy at 7 West Allington, Bridport and begins production of Mentholated Honey Syrup (Fudge’s Firewater)
1973 Mr Fudge retires and the recipe for Firewater transfers to Mr Joe Sparrow at his 24 East Street Pharmacy
1975 Mr Kevin Morrish takes over the East Street Pharmacy, together with Fudge’s Firewater
1998 Mr Morrish retires and the business is acquired by Lifestyle
2001 Moss acquires the East Street Pharmacy, Mr David Conroy is the manager until 2005
2006 Moss ceases production of Fudge’s Firewater
2006-2009 Firewater available in Weymouth (Mr Dipan Shah, St John’s Pharmacy) but only with private prescription.

The opium fields of England

A surprising picture appeared in the Guardian newspaper towards the end of June. It showed fields, near Blandford, Dorset in South West England, painted lilac with the flowers of the opium poppy. This controversial crop, associated in many people’s minds with war-torn countries like Afghanistan, is now being grown commercially in England to produce the medically-important pain killer morphine. But just how did opium poppies come to be grown across swathes of rural England?

Opium and the opium poppy

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Papaver somniferum as described in a 19th century German book (from Wikipedia, click on the picture for more details)

 

The opium poppy, or Papaver somniferum as it is more correctly called, is an imposing plant with fleshy grey-green leaves, showy pastel coloured flowers and impressive pepper pot seed heads. Standing up to a metre tall, the opium poppy brings architectural interest to the garden but it has a darker side. Within the seed head is a milky liquid containing a mixture of narcotic chemicals including morphine and codeine. If the unripe seed head is pierced, this latex seeps out and, left to dry, this is opium, prized for its extraordinary psychoactive powers.

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The unripe seed capsule of an opium poppy pierced to release the opium (from Wikipedia)

 

Humans have used opium for many thousands of years and the earliest written reference to the drug comes from the Middle East around 4000BC. The ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilisations were also well acquainted with the properties of the drug using it enthusiastically. Although growth of Papaver somniferum is typically associated with warmer climates, the opium poppy has a history of cultivation in the UK. In the 18th and 19th centuries, many houses in the East Anglian Fens grew a stand of white opium poppies so that the dried seed capsules could be used to brew a tea containing small amounts of morphine. This infusion helped counter the aches and pains suffered by people living harsh lives in what was then, a remote, unhealthy part of the country. Use was not confined to the Fens as  the Dorset-writerThomas Hardy, in The Trumpet Major, refers to poppy heads and pain relief.

By the 19th century, imported opium was freely available in the UK and was used extensively at all levels of society. Opium was supplied in many forms including laudanum, a tincture of opium in wine, popularised by the Dorset-born physician Thomas Sydenham. The drug was taken to relieve pain, to induce sleep and to treat cough and diarrhoea. Its euphoriant properties were also prized and recreational use occurred with some problems of dependence. Encouraged by the drug’s popularity, attempts were made in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to grow opium poppies commercially in the UK but these were abandoned in favour of imported Turkish opium.

From opium to morphine

Morphine was isolated from opium in the 19th century and the powerful pain killing and euphoriant properties of the pure drug were quickly recognised. These come at a price as, compared to opium, morphine has potentially dangerous side effects and is highly addictive. By the 20th century, all non-medical use was banned but, to the present day, morphine is widely prescribed to relieve moderate and severe pain especially after major surgery. Diamorphine (heroin) is also used for pain relief in the UK but we hear more about its illicit use, the problems of addiction and the associated criminal activity. All morphine used clinically is still obtained from the opium poppy, extracted either from crude opium or from the dried seed heads.

The 21st century opium fields of England

Poppy heads by Jane V Adams
Opium poppies growing near Bere Regis in Dorset, UK showing the seed heads (by Jane V Adams)

 

By the end of the 20th century, the morphine used for medical purposes in the UK was extracted from opium poppies grown in Tasmania and Spain. It was tacitly assumed that the climate in the UK was unsuitable for their commercial cultivation. In 1999, however, John Manners, a seed merchant from Oxfordshire questioned this doctrine. He had seen striking pictures of purple opium poppies growing commercially in Poland, and decided to have a go at growing the plants in the UK. He set up some small trial plots and grew the poppies successfully in the southern part of the country. But did they produce morphine when grown in the UK? With the help of the Scottish pharmaceutical company, Macfarlan Smith (now a division of Johnson-Matthey), he showed that indeed they did. A full field trial the following year in Oxfordshire was also a success and, by 2002, 100 hectares of opium poppies were being grown commercially in the UK, each hectare yielding about 15 kg of morphine. More farmers were persuaded to grow the crop and nowadays, early summer sees about 2500 hectares of farmland blooming with the unselfconscious lilac flowers, mostly in the counties of Dorset, Hampshire, Lincolnshire and Oxfordshire.

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Opium poppies growing in Lincolnshire, UK (from Wikipedia)

 

Although they were initially uneasy about growing opium poppies, farmers now find it to be a lucrative break crop to prepare the land for growing cereals or oil seed rape the following season. Farmers contracted to Macfarlan Smith must prepare the seed bed and sow poppy seed supplied by the company which also advises on agronomy and pest control while the opium poppies are growing. The UK climate seems to suit the poppies well and after flowering they are left to dry before the seed capsule and about 5 cm of stem are harvested. The harvest is taken to a central processing facility where the poppy seeds in the capsule are separated leaving “poppy straw”. Poppy seeds contain little or no morphine and are sold for various culinary uses such as bread making. Poppy straw is processed in Macfarlan Smith’s Edinburgh factory where the morphine is isolated by solvent extraction and purification. About half of the UK requirement of medical morphine (~60 tons/year) is now made from poppies grown in the UK, including those grown in Dorset. So when you come across these beautiful lilac-painted fields next summer, think morphine, think pain relief, and think poppy extracts ending up in medicine cabinets in hospitals and pharmacies.

I should like to thank Marilyn Peddle (www.marilynjanephotography.co.uk) for generously providing the featured image which is of opium poppies growing in North Dorset
and Jane Adams (https://urbanextension.wordpress.com/) for generously providing the photograph of opium poppies growing near Dorchester.

This is a slightly  modified version of an article that appeared in the September edition of the Marshwood Vale Magazine.

The risks of eating poppy seed bread

Our local baker makes a very good wholemeal loaf which he garnishes liberally with poppy seeds. As I tucked in to a sandwich made from this excellent bread, I spared a thought for the governor of London’s Brixton Prison who recently suffered the exquisite embarrassment of failing a drugs test. Routine heroin tests for several inmates at the Prison had come up positive but the prisoners protested their innocence and challenged the governor to take a test himself. Generously he did and that’s when the embarrassment occurred. Eventually, the source of the “drugs” was traced to bread laced with poppy seeds. The seeds contain morphine and other opiates which register as positive in the prison-drugs test and although this story sounds like an urban myth, poppy seeds are now banned from the prison.

Poppy seeds
poppy seeds
Poppy seeds are used in many cultures as a food ingredient, for example to garnish breads and rolls, as an ingredient in cakes or ground in sauces and pastry fillings. The seeds are harvested from the dried seed capsule of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). The opium poppy is well known as the source of the powerful painkillers and drugs of abuse, morphine and codeine (opiates). Although the seeds themselves contain only trace amounts of the opiates, they can be contaminated by poor harvesting practices or insect damage so that commercially available poppy seeds contain varying amounts of morphine.

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But does it matter that poppy seeds contain opiates? The EU clearly thinks it does matter because in 2011 it commissioned a huge report on the public health risks of consuming opiates in poppy seeds. Consumption of the seeds in food varies considerably across the EU but some Central-Eastern European cultures use poppy seeds widely. The report contains a mass of data and found that, although some groups may be consuming morphine at active levels from poppy seeds, few side effects are reported. One person did, however, report morphine-like side effects after consuming a meal sprinkled with a massive 75g of contaminated poppy seeds.

poppy-seed-bagel
poppy seed bagel

 

Poppy seed-opiates also matter to people undergoing drug testing and there are numerous reports of failed workplace heroin tests, and lost jobs, after consumption of food containing poppy seeds. It may seem surprising but consumption of just one poppy seed bagel can lead to urinary morphine levels of 250ng/ml after three hours. Workplace heroin testing actually assesses morphine levels so that it can be difficult to distinguish between consumption of heroin (heroin is broken down to morphine) and of poppy seeds. To try to eliminate the poppy seed-false positives, the threshold for a positive test was raised from 300 ng morphine/ml to 2000 ng/ml in US Federal Workplaces in 1998. Not all employers follow this rule so that confusion can still arise. For similar reasons, US Federal Prisons forbid prisoners to eat foods containing poppy seeds and athletes undergoing routine drug testing are advised to avoid foods containing the seeds.

A better solution would be to find a heroin-specific test. Forensic scientists identified 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) as a heroin-specific metabolite found in the urine of heroin users and absent after poppy seed ingestion. In principle, this should deal with the confusion but 6-MAM is broken down fairly quickly in the body so that it can be missed. Very recently a team from King’s College, London have reported another heroin-specific metabolite, ATM4G, that they hope might provide the basis of a better test.

Some people have taken advantage of the presence of opiates in poppy seeds by steeping the seeds in water to release the active compounds. We could call this a poppy seed tea, and it should in principle produce low level opiate effects. The problem with these brews is that because the levels of morphine in the seeds are very variable so the potencies of the teas also vary in a largely unpredictable manner. Great care should be taken and there are more than a dozen reports of deaths occurring after consuming poppy seed tea owing to morphine overdose.

The poppy seed-opiate story also exposes an interesting conundrum. If someone takes morphine or even uses poppy seed tea we would call them a drug user. If another person eats poppy seeds, we would say that it’s part of their culture, even if they experience low-level morphine effects. All I know is that I shan’t stop buying my baker’s bread or his lemon and poppy seed cake!

Lock up your hydrangeas, drug thieves about!

Hydrangea hortensis smith

Plants are rich and varied sources of chemicals that change brain function, so-called psychoactive chemicals. For example, the coca plant, a shrub indigenous to the foothills of the Andes, was used for thousands of years by the local people because of the effects of the cocaine contained in the leaves. The peyote cactus has been used for millennia by the inhabitants of Mexico and Central America to experience the psychoactive effects of mescaline. In the 19th century, many families living in the Fens in the East of England grew a stand of white poppies in a corner of their garden. These were harvested to make a “poppy-head tea” containing small amounts of opium. The tea was used as a traditional remedy for the various ailments that afflicted rural life in that part of the UK.

These are just three examples but they illustrate the ingenuity of humans for finding plants that have interesting or useful properties when consumed. For every flower or plant, someone, somewhere will have tried eating it or smoking it and, if they survived, they will have reported the effects.

Hydrangea May 2012-1

I was, therefore, more than surprised when, last month, I read a Guardian leader “In praise of hydrangeas” which not only extolled the plant for its blooms but also pointed out the recent discovery of the psychoactive properties of the flowers. According to a companion piece there had been a spate of hydrangea attacks in northern France, attributed, so the article alleged, to people wishing to smoke the dried flowers and leaves because of the hallucinogenic and euphoria-inducing effects which are similar to those of cannabis. The thieves must be after the new shoots judging from the state of a hydrangea in my garden; it has plenty of new growth but the few flowers left are dry, brown and rather mangy.

I hadn’t heard of the psychoactive properties of hydrangea before and didn’t know quite what to make of the story. It sounded worthy of April Fool’s Day but in fact the craze for smoking hydrangea is not new and springtime hydrangea theft has been known in Bavaria for more than 10 years. In Romania, they are so concerned that they have stopped planting the shrub in parks.

Hydrangea does not feature in my pharmacognosy textbook suggesting that if hydrangea does possess any interesting pharmacological properties, these have been overlooked. Nevertheless, the shrub does contain some unique chemicals including the coumarins, hydrangine and hydrangenol but unfortunately no psychoactive properties have been reported for these substances. Importantly, hydrangea does not contain compounds typical of cannabis such as tetrahydrocannabinol.

So what’s going on here? It doesn’t look as though there are major psychoactive chemicals in hydrangea so how does smoking the shrub produce a high? Perhaps we can get a clue from veterinary reports on the dangers of hydrangea to pets. Apparently dogs and cats can become unwell if they eat the leaves. This is attributed to chemicals found in hydrangea called cyanogenic glycosides which can break down, when metabolised, to produce the very poisonous substance, hydrogen cyanide. Cyanogenic glycosides are found in many different plants including some apricot kernels and almonds, also apple and cherry seeds.

Hydrogen cyanide is very poisonous to humans as it inhibits energy production in cells. Some of the short term effects of cyanide are headache, dizziness and confusion. Perhaps when leaves or flowers of hydrangea are smoked, small amounts of hydrogen cyanide are released. Consumption of one hydrangea joint might, therefore, provide a little cyanide and the effect, combined with a good dose of imagination could be interpreted as cannabis-like. This would also fit with the many warnings about not smoking more than one hydrangea joint because of the significant risk of cyanide poisoning.

I have not come across any reports of hydrangea smoking in the UK but I did find a report of bloom theft in Hastings and Bexhill in 2012. Apparently, the thieves were then selling the dried blooms to flower arrangers at a boot fair. At least that’s what they said!

I should like to thank Dr Ben Whalley (University of Reading) and Prof Kurt Hostettman (University of Geneva) for helpful discussions.